Гјberfall Gelsenkirchen

Гјberfall Gelsenkirchen

Гјberfall Gelsenkirchen

Later, the Romans pushed into the area. In about , the region was settled by the Saxons. A few other parts of town which today lie in Gelsenkirchen's north end were mentioned in documents from the early Middle Ages , some examples being: Raedese nowadays Resse , Middelvic Middelich , today part of Resse , Sutheim Sutum ; today part of Beckhausen and Sculven nowadays Scholven.

Many nearby farming communities were later identified as iuxta Bure "near Buer". It was about when the name Gelstenkerken or Geilistirinkirkin appeared up for the first time.

At about the same time, the first church in town was built in what is now Buer. This ecclesia Buron "church at Buer" was listed in a directory of parish churches by the sexton from Deutz , Theodericus.

This settlement belonged to the Mark. However, in ancient times and even in the Middle Ages, only a few dozen people actually lived in the settlements around the Emscher basin.

Up until the middle of the 19th century, the area in and around Gelsenkirchen was only thinly settled and almost exclusively agrarian. In , after temporarily belonging to the Grand Duchy of Berg , the land now comprising the city of Gelsenkirchen passed to the Kingdom of Prussia , which assigned it to the province of Westphalia.

Whereas the Gelsenkirchen of that time — not including today's north-end communities, such as Buer — was put in the Amt of Wattenscheid in the Bochum district, in the governmental region of Arnsberg , Buer, which was an Amt in its own right, was along with nearby Horst joined to Recklinghausen district in the governmental region of Münster.

This arrangement came to an end only in After the discovery of coal — lovingly known as "Black Gold" — in the Ruhr area in , and the subsequent industrialisation , the Cologne — Minden Railway and the Gelsenkirchen Main Railway Station were opened.

In , after Bochum district was split up, Gelsenkirchen became the seat of its own district Kreis , which would last until The cities of Gelsenkirchen and Wattenscheid, as well as the Ämter of Braubauerschaft in , Bismarck , Schalke, Ückendorf , Wanne and Wattenscheid all belonged to the Gelsenkirchen district.

A few years later, in , Gelsenkirchen split off from Gelsenkirchen district to become an independent city German : kreisfreie Stadt.

In , Horst was split off from the Amt of Buer, which itself was raised to city status in , and to an independent city status the next year.

Meanwhile, Horst became the seat of its own Amt. In , the rural community of Rotthausen , which until then had belonged to the Essen district, was made part of the Gelsenkirchen district.

In , under the Prussian local government reforms, the cities of Gelsenkirchen and Buer along with the Amt of Horst together became a new kreisfreie Stadt called Gelsenkirchen-Buer, effective on 1 April that year.

From that time, the whole city area belonged to the governmental district of Münster. In , on the city's advice, the city's name was changed to Gelsenkirchen , effective 21 May.

By this time, the city was home to about , people. The 9 November Kristallnacht antisemitic riots destroyed Jewish businesses, dwellings and cemeteries, and a synagogue in Buer and one in downtown Gelsenkirchen.

However, a new downtown Gelsenkirchen synagogue was opened on 1 February Three quarters of Gelsenkirchen was destroyed [6] and many above-ground air-raid shelters such as near the town hall in Buer are in nearly original form.

Oberst Werner Mölders the legendary Luftwaffe Fighter pilot was born here. About died during September bombing raids shelters and protection ditches were forbidden to them.

From to , the city's mayor was the appointed Nazi Carl Engelbert Böhmer. In , the Institute for City History opened the documentation centre "Gelsenkirchen under National Socialism" Dokumentationsstätte "Gelsenkirchen im Nationalsozialismus".

On 17 December , the Kokerei Hassel went into operation, billed as Germany's "first new coking plant " since the war. When postal codes Postleitzahlen were introduced in , Gelsenkirchen was one of the few cities in West Germany to be given two codes: Buer was given , while Gelsenkirchen got These were in use until 1 July The "first comprehensive school in North Rhine-Westphalia " was opened in The Pope also became an honorary member of FC Schalke In , the last phase of the Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher Park , an undertaking that brought together many cities in North Rhine-Westphalia, was held.

Coke was produced at the old Hassel coking works for the last time on 29 September This marked the shutdown of the last coking plant in Gelsenkirchen, after being a coking town for more than years.

On 28 April , the Ewald-Hugo colliery closed — Gelsenkirchen's last colliery. Three thousand coalminers lost their jobs.

In , Buer celebrated its thousandth anniversary of first documentary mention, and FC Schalke 04 celebrated on 4 May its hundredth anniversary.

Today, Gelsenkirchen is a centre for sciences, services, and production, with good infrastructure. The Jewish community of Gelsenkirchen was officially established in , relatively late compared to the Jewish Ashkenazi communities in Germany.

With the growth of the community, a bigger building was built to serve as the community school. The community continued to grow and around 1, Jews were living in Gelsenkirchen in , a number that reached its peak of 1, individuals in At the turn of the 20th century the Reform Jewish community was the most dominant among all Jewish communities in town, and after an organ was installed inside the synagogue, and most prayers performed mostly in German instead of traditional Hebrew, the town orthodox community decided to stop its attendance of the synagogue and tried to establish a new orthodox community, led by Dr.

Max Meyer, Dr. With the rise of Hitler and National Socialism in , Jewish life in Gelsenkirchen was still relatively quiet. In August , Jewish businesses were still open in town.

In October , though, an official ban restricted these businesses and all Jewish doctors became unemployed. In the same month, the Jewish community of town was expelled.

Between and , the Jewish population of Gelsenkirchen dropped from 1, to 1, During Kristallnacht , the town synagogue was destroyed, after two thirds of the town's Jewish population had already left.

On 27 January , among the remaining Jews in town were deported to the Riga Ghetto ; later, the last remaining Jews were deported to Warsaw and Theresienstadt concentration camp.

On 31 March , a Nazi deportation train set out from Gelsenkirchen and, carrying 48 Jews from the town area, made its way to the Warsaw Ghetto.

The train was the first to deport Jews to Warsaw and not to Trawniki concentration camp in southern Poland, as used before.

After it left Gelsenkirchen, the train was boarded by other Jews from Münster , Dortmund and a few other stops along the way, and mostly by the Jews of Hanover , in number.

The arrival of this transport from Westphalia and Upper Saxony was recorded in his diaries by Adam Czerniakov, the last chairman of the Warsaw Ghetto Judenrat.

He stated that those older than 68 were allowed to stay in Germany. The majority of these deportees were killed later on the different death sites around modern day Poland.

In , 69 Jews returned to Gelsenkirchen and in , a synagogue and cultural centre were built for the remaining community.

In , about Jews were living in town. During the last decade of the 20th century, a noted number of Jews came to the town, after emigrating out of the former USSR.

This situation made it necessary to extend the synagogue. Eventually, a new and bigger synagogue was built to serve the increasing Jewish community of Gelsenkirchen.

The current community practices Orthodox Judaism, even though no family practices it at home. Max Meyer, who built it between and A mezuzah sign can still be seen on the top right side of the door.

As part of the national Stolperstein project, five bricks, commemorating the Jewish inhabitants, were installed outside the house.

Grad je od tada nosio ime Gelsenkirchen-Buer. Tako je bilo sve do Na njemu je odigrano nekoliko utakmica SP-a u nogometu Kasnije, Rimljani dolaze na ove prostore, a oko Nekoliko dijelova grada koji se danas nalaze u sjevernom Gelsenkirchen, spominju se u dokumentima ranog Srednjeg vijeka.

Sve do sredine Ovako je bilo do Poslije pronalaska ugljena u Rurskoj oblasti Friedrich Grillo je osnovao korporaciju kemijske industrije Aktiengesellschaft für Chemische Industrie u Schalkeu Gradovi Gelsenkirchen i Wattenscheid, kao i Ämteri Braubauerschaft od , Bismarck , Schalke, Ückendorf, Wanne i Wattenscheid su pripadali gelsenkirchenskom distriktu.

Nekoliko godina poslije, U to vrijeme, grad je imao Za vrijeme Hitlerove vladavine

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Ukupan broj stanovnika je oko Prvi dokumentirani podaci u kojima se spominje Gelsenkirchen datiraju iz Kao malo selo spominje se u Godine Grad je od tada nosio ime Gelsenkirchen-Buer.

Tako je bilo sve do Kasnije, Rimljani dolaze na ove prostore, a oko Nekoliko dijelova grada koji se danas nalaze u sjevernom Gelsenkirchen, spominju se u dokumentima ranog srednjeg vijeka.

Sve do sredine Ovako je bilo do Poslije pronalaska ugljena u Rurskoj oblasti Friedrich Grillo je osnovao korporaciju kemijske industrije Aktiengesellschaft für Chemische Industrie u Schalkeu Gradovi Gelsenkirchen i Wattenscheid, kao i Ämteri Braubauerschaft od , Bismarck , Schalke, Ückendorf, Wanne i Wattenscheid su pripadali gelsenkirchenskom distriktu.

Nekoliko godina poslije, U to vrijeme, grad je imao Za vrijeme Hitlerove vladavine Ovi brojevi su bili u upotrebi do 1.

The majority of these deportees were killed later on the different death sites around modern day Poland.

In , 69 Jews returned to Gelsenkirchen and in , a synagogue and cultural centre were built for the remaining community. In , about Jews were living in town.

During the last decade of the 20th century, a noted number of Jews came to the town, after emigrating out of the former USSR. This situation made it necessary to extend the synagogue.

Eventually, a new and bigger synagogue was built to serve the increasing Jewish community of Gelsenkirchen.

The current community practices Orthodox Judaism, even though no family practices it at home. Max Meyer, who built it between and A mezuzah sign can still be seen on the top right side of the door.

As part of the national Stolperstein project, five bricks, commemorating the Jewish inhabitants, were installed outside the house.

Gelsenkirchen presents itself as a centre of solar technology. Scheuten Solar Technology has taken over its solar panel production.

Gelsenkirchen Hauptbahnhof central station lies at the junction of the Duisburg—Dortmund , the Essen—Gelsenkirchen and the Gelsenkirchen—Münster lines.

The Rhine—Herne Canal has a commercial-industrial harbour in Gelsenkirchen. All these services have an integrated fare structure within the VRR.

There are three tram lines, one light rail line, and about 50 bus routes in Gelsenkirchen. Among newspapers, the Buersche Zeitung was a daily till The Ruhr Nachrichten ceased publication in Gelsenkirchen in April Now, the Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung is the only local newspaper in Gelsenkirchen.

There is also a free weekly newspaper, the Stadtspiegel Gelsenkirchen , along with monthly, or irregular, local publications called the Familienpost and the Beckhausener Kurier.

Gelsenkirchen has 51 elementary schools 36 public schools, 12 Catholic schools, 3 Protestant schools , 8 Hauptschulen , 6 Realschulen , 7 Gymnasien , and 5 Gesamtschulen , among which the Gesamtschule Bismarck , as the only comprehensive school run by the Westphalian branch of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, warrants special mention.

There is a Volkshochschule for adult education as well as a city library with three branches. The Institute for Underground Infrastructure, founded in and associated with the Ruhr University Bochum , provides a wide range of research, certification, and consulting services.

Gelsenkirchen is home of the Bundesliga club FC Schalke Schalke's home ground, Arena AufSchalke. German football manager Michael Skibbe was also born in Gelsenkirchen.

Gelsenkirchen is twinned with: [17]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Coat of arms. Location of Gelsenkirchen. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. September See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.

Dezember " in German. Retrieved 10 July Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 18 April Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary.

Oxford University Press. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Air University Review. Maxwell Air Force Base.

Archived from the original on 22 February Gottwaldt and D. Gelsenkirchen, Germany: Stadtmarketing Gesellschaft Gelsenkirchen. Schalken kaupunginosasta on kotoisin Bundesliigassa pelaava jalkapalloseura FC Schalke Viitattu Wikimedia Commonsissa on kuvia tai muita tiedostoja aiheesta Gelsenkirchen.

Nordrhein-Westfalenin kaupunkipiirit ja piirikunnat. Tämä Saksaan liittyvä artikkeli on tynkä. Voit auttaa Wikipediaa laajentamalla artikkelia.

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